“There has been a long controversy as to whether subjectively ‘free’ decisions are determined by brain activity ahead of time. We found that the outcome of a decision can be encoded in brain activity of prefrontal and parietal cortex up to 10 s before it enters awareness. This delay presumably reflects the operation of a network of high-level control areas that begin to prepare an upcoming decision long before it enters awareness.”

Nature Neuroscience 11, 543 – 545 (2008)

To Do or Not to Do: The Neural Signature of Self-Control:

“Our results suggest that the human brain network for intentional action includes a control structure for self-initiated inhibition or withholding of intended actions. The mental control of action has an enduring scientific interest, linked to the philosophical concept of “free will.” Our results identify a candidate brain area that reflects the crucial decision to do or not to do.”


W3C: Maintaining a Web of Humanity | CSAIL

“The Web was built upon principles of universality,” says Berners-Lee. “So any person on any device should be able to make use of any kind of data and access any kind of information. Our stated goal is to lead the Web to its full potential – that’s not a place but a direction, and our work is focused on trying to find the right direction.”


Lewis Fry Richardson’s answer to the question of creative thinking by machines is a circuit diagram, drawn in the late 1920s and published in 1930, illustrating a self-excited, non-deterministic circuit with two semi-stable states, captioned “Electrical Model illustrating a Mind having a Will but capable of only Two Ideas.”